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一般现在时的用法 1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。 时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning.


1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.

Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。


例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don’t want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

2. 一般过去时的用法


时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

Where did you go just now?


When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.


It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示’宁愿某人做某事’

I’d rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。



Christine was an invalid all her life.


Christine has been an invalid all her life.


Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.


Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would.

Could you lend me your bike?

3. used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步)


---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It’s 69568442.

A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

4. 一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

5. be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来

will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you’d better get ready for it a s soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

6. be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排)

I’m going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

7. 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.


Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.


When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

11. 用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen.


This is the first time (that) I’ve heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。


(1) ---Do you know our town at all?

---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?

---No, it’s the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。


(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven’t received his letter for almost a month.

12. 比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.

I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.

I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。

I worked here for more than twenty years.


I have worked here for many years.


小窍门: 当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。

1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.

2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.

显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

13. since的四种用法

1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。

I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段时间+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +从句

Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段时间+ since从句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.



He saw her in the shop yesterday.

She was seen in the shop yesterday.

2) 主语有两个宾语的被动语态

Li Lei gave me a chemistry book.

I was given a chemistry book by Li Lei.

A chemistry book was given to me by Li Lei.


若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为

感官动词:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.


Mother told me not to be late

I was told not to be late by mother.

5)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

6)表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

? believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand

It is said that… 据说

It is reported that… 据报道

It is believed that… 大家相信

It is hoped that… 大家希望

It is well known that… 众所周知

It is thought that… 大家认为

It is suggested that… 据建议

It is taken granted that… 被视为当然

It has been decided that… 大家决定

It must be remember that…务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

14. 延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。

He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)

I’ve known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异

延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"

He didn’t come back until ten o’clock.

他到10 点才回来。

He slept until ten o’clock.



1. You don’t need to describe her. I ___ her several times.

A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2.---I’m sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现

. 不定式作宾语

1) 动词+ 不定式

afford aim appear agree arrange ask be decide bother care choose come dare demand desire determine expect elect endeavor hope fail happen help hesitate learn long mean manage offer ought plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem tend wait wish undertake


The driver failed to see the other car in time.


I happen to know the answer to your question.


2)动词+不定式 ; 动词+宾语+不定式

ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish…

I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。

I want to speak to Tom. 我想和汤姆谈话。

I want you to speak to Tom. 我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to

decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell

Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。

There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。


The question is how to put it into practice.


2. 不定式作补语

1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)

advise allow appoint believe cause challenge command compel consider declare drive enable encourage find forbid force guess hire imagine impel induce inform instruct invite judge know like order permit persuade remind report request require select send state suppose tell think train trust understand urge warn


a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.


b. We believe him to be guilty.


Find 的特殊用法:

Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。

I found him lying on the ground.

I found it important to learn.

I found that to learn English is important.

初一到初三的英语笔记 重点知识点 求

七年级英语上知识点 一1. want sth./to do sth. 想要某物/做某事 2. love to listen to …喜欢听…… 3.介词+Ving : Thanks for ___ (come) to my party! Thank you for _____(help) me.4.动词like, want, have,play 等,在变否定句和疑问句时要用do, don't ;does,doesn't5. can +动词原形 6. 主语用三单,动词也要用三单7. He does homework(否定句) He doesn't(助动词)do(行为动词)homework 8. Let's +V原 : Do you like _____(draw)? Let's _____(go) to the art club . 9. help sb.(to) do sth. =help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事10.He is helping Tom ____(learn )English. 11. 在时刻前用at,在星期几前用on,在年/月/早上/下午/晚上前用 in, 日前用on 在早晨用in,在具体某一天的早晨用on : on the morning of July 2nd12.带来用bring…to,带走用take…to 13. 回答赞美的句子用Thank you ! 14. 十二个月用twelve months 15.穿什么颜色的衣服用 in +颜色16.乐器前要加the: play the violin 17.play+体育运动18.某一餐吃什么用for+三餐之一 eat/have /like…for+某一餐19. 问价格用How much is/ are…? 问数量用 How much+不可数名词+…? How many+可数名词(pl.)+…? 20 . .问在何时做某事用When/What time What time is ti?= What's the time?21. 问年龄用How old How old is Mike? =What's Mike's age?22. 问地点用where 23.问原因用Why,回答用 Because 24.问颜色用What color , 回答用It's/ They're +颜色 25.问生日用When is A's birthday? 回答时用月份+日期(序数词)如:November(the) ninth 26.在墙上用 on the wall 27. also用在句中,too用在句末 28序数词前一定要加the 29. an apple /a red apple 30.表共同拥有用Aand B's,表各自所有用A's and B's31. He likes red best(最喜欢).=His favorite color is red 32. look at =have a look at 33. an alarm clock 34. You play the guitar well.(副词修饰动词) He is a good student.(形容词修饰名词) 35. 我和某人用…and I ,表复数,be动词用are 36.the fifth month/ day of the year/ week 37. home前不能用 to :go/get/at home 38. parents=father and mother;parent=father or mother39. 表顺接用and,表转折用but 40. 名词前用物主代词: her friends 41. 可数名词用they/them代替,不可数名词用it代替 42.以 am/is/are / do/does/ can 开头的句子是一般问句,回答时用Yes/No,+主语(代词)+句首单词(Areyou ? I am ) 43. 我们用各种颜色的短裤:We have pants in all colors44. favorite/birthday 前一定要加物主代词:my favorite subject/his birthday 45 after class(正确), after the class(错误) 46 打两小时的篮球:play basketball for two hours 47. a lot of =lots of 用于可数/不可数前 48. many=lots of =a lot of (后接可数名称复数) 49. much=lots of =a lot of(后接不可数名词) 50 people永远表复数;Chinese,Japanese单复数一致: many people/Chinese/Japanese 51. some/any+可数名词复数/不可数名词 some用于肯定句,any用于否定句和疑问句 52. 数词(1除外)后名词要用复数:three tomatoes 53. 介词后动词用ing,代词用宾格: Thanks for helping me / Write a letter to them 54. some+ food/orange/salad 等不可数名词表单数,be 动词用is 55.Teachers' Day(教师节) 56. like reading and playing sports57. can join=can be in 58.How old is she?= What's her age?59.你妈妈最喜欢的颜色:your mother's favorite color 60. Tshirts in green and black(绿黑相间的T恤衫) 61. on Saturday afternoon(在周六下午) 62. take him to work 63. go home with Jim 64. speak(+a little)+语言 65. 想成为:want to be 66. learn about art 67. 几十几的数词要加 :twentytwo 68. Let's go to the store 69. 哪种颜色:what kind of color 70. an Art Festival 71. be busy with/doing 72.16岁:sixteen years old 或 sixteen 73. a photo of her family =her family photo 74.be strict with 75.你听什么?What do you listen ____? 76.他姓什么?What is __ ___ ___?77. 我不做家庭作业:I___ ____ my homework 78.他周末做什么?What ___he ___ ___ weekends? 79 We need two musicians___ our rock band. 80 help the boys with _____(paint) 81. the________(第十二) month of the year 82. can't sing _____ dance 83. Let's ___ ___ the picture.(看) 84.the first day of the week is_____ 85 许多种类的毛衣:many_____ _____ sweaters 86. ____ can play the piano? Tom can. 87. 学校组织郊游:the ___ ___ 88. 三个月大:three ____ old 89. 穿红衣服的女孩:the girl_____ _____ 90. 他常和他哥哥一起去看动作篇:He often ____ ___ ___ action movies _______ his brother. 91. 给你______ ______ ________ 92. 我和汤姆是兄弟___and___are____ 93. 许多人:many______94.那个女孩和她姐姐在家。The girl ,with her sister___(be)at home ./ The girl and her sister ___(be) at home. 95. Is your birthday October 5th?—Yes, ___ ___ 96.他的五岁生日:_____ ____ birthday 97. _____the morning _____ Dec.



第一单元自尊自信 1.正确地认识和评价自己(教材1316页) (1)重要性: ①P13正确地认识和评价自己,是一个人心理成熟的标志之一。 ②P16试着运用一些正确的方法去客观、全面地认识自己,逐步形成清晰的自我形成 ③……这是每个成功者的基本素质之一。 ④P16只有认识自己,才能把握未来 (2)如何做? ①P13正确地认识和评价自己的关键是要实事求是,既不要高估自己,也不要低估自己。(人贵有自知之明。) ②P14正确认识和评价自己,努力发现自己的潜能,这样才能使自己得到充分的发展。 ③P15正确认识和评价自己,必须掌握科学的方法。科学的方法通常有:……相互比较、咨询他人、科学鉴定等。 2.我自信 我能行(教材1619页) (1)自信心的含义。P17 自信心是在对自己的自我肯定和充分估计的基础上,相信自己力量的一种心理状态。 (2)为什么要树立自信心? ①P16自信是一个人成长与成才不可缺少的一种重要的心理品质,……并相信自己能够获得成功。 ②P17自信的人能靠自己的力量使看似不可能的成为可能,使可能的成为现实。 (3)如何树立自信心? ①P17自信是多次成功的积累,一个人感受的成功体验越多,对自己就越充满信心。 ②P17要把握自己的长处和优点。找出自己的长处和优势,挖掘自己的潜力、……不断走向成功。 ③P17超越自卑。自卑心理是一种消极的……消极情感。克服自卑最为简单的办法是要发现自己的优点和长处。 ④P20树立自信心,还要勤奋努力。勤奋是成功的基石。 3.做人从知耻开始 (1)为什么要有羞耻之心? ①P24羞耻之心,是自觉抵制不良诱惑的一种精神力量……不做有损自己人格的事情 ②P25羞耻感是一种强烈的心理反……往往会给自己带来更大的耻辱和痛苦 ③P26羞耻之心对维护良好的社会秩序和社会安定至关重要……具有普通的实际意义 ④P26对国家和民族的道德责任感,从某种意义……并从中吸取动力的民族,才是伟大的民族。 (2)怎样培养羞耻感? ①P24知耻,就是在内心建立起辨别善恶、是非、……学会做人,从知耻开。 ②P25正确的方法是由“知耻”而“记耻”,由“记耻”而奋发 ③P26培养羞耻之心就要按照社会道德和法律的要求,养成良好的行为习惯,不断增强自身的素质 ④P26毋忘国耻,为承担民族复兴大业而奋发学习(这点学生写在书上) 4.我们的姓名和名誉P32(自主看书) 第二单元 善于交往 5.我最尊重的人(教材4344页) P44一个人要得到别人的尊重,首先……这就是受人尊重的奥秘。 6.学会尊重别人(教材4650页) (1)P46 尊重他人的前提是认识到人与人之间是平等的。 (2)怎样正确对待差异?P49 ①家境有贫富差异……决不能歧视。 ②智力差异……在他们身上也有许多闪光点 ③父母职务、工作不同……并没有高低贵贱之分 ④身体差异,人群中总会有一些人生得瘦小……更不能欺负他们 (2)如何学会尊重他人? ①P49我们要平等待人,尊重他人,就必须做到不能以家境的贫富……不尊重他人的理由。 ②P49我们要平等尊重他人,还必须做到不凌弱欺生。 ③P50从点滴做起。对人有礼貌,是平等尊重他人的最基本表现, ④必须掌握基本的交往礼仪和技能,了解社会公共生活的共同准则,……遵纪守法的好习惯 7.生活需要宽容友善(教材6365页) (1)宽容友善的重要性: ①P63人有宽阔的胸襟,才能赢得友谊,……谅人之短,从而产生很大的感召力,使人相互信任亲近。 ②凡是在事业上有所建树的人,无不襟怀坦荡,度量恢宏。而心胸狭小者,于人于己都没有好处。 ③宽容是一种美德,是一个人有修养的体现。 8.交往有度 纯化友谊 (1)为什么要正确对待异性交往 ①P73异性交往是我们在社会中进行人际交往的重要内容……七彩阳光②有利于学习进步,优势互补…意志也更为坚强。 (2)怎样与异性同学交往 ①P7落落大方 掌握分寸②P75互相帮助 互相学习 ③P75我们更提倡男女同学之间的群体交往。 9.相互尊重 促进交往 (1)为什么应尊重各国各民族的风俗习惯? P90世界各国、各民族的文化习惯都具有独特性……丰富性。 (2)怎样相互尊重彼此习俗,促进交往? ①P90入乡随俗,要以开放和包容的心态平等相待……一概排斥、一无所知 ②P91我们和世界各国人民友好交往必须掌握文明社会普遍认可和适用的基本礼仪和礼节。 ③P92我们要和不同民族、国家人民平等相待,相互尊重,友好往来 ④P93我们不能不加分析地简单模仿,全盘照搬,因此,我们应该坚持原则,明晰是非,坚决抵制。 第三单元 学会学习 10.享有受教育的权利(教材99103页) P99 我国宪法规定:“中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。……保护公民享有受教育的权利和义务。 (1)P99为什么受教育是我国公民的一项基本权利?P99 从公民的自身发展和国家的要求来讲,受教育是我国公民的一项基本权利。 (2)P103我国公民平等地享有受教育的权利,……不得歧视任何人的受教育的要求。 11.履行受教育的义务(教材103105页) 受教育不仅是公民的权利,也是公民对国家、对人民必须履行的一项基本义务。P103 (1)受教育者